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Engine Operation
Exhaust Emissions

Engine exhaust gas contains gaseous, liquid and solid constituents of the fuel and lube oil in different compositions and quantities. The gaseous constituents like HC, NOX and CO, and in diesel engines also the particulate mass, are limited at different levels for different operating cycles by legislation in the various countries [24, 25]. Additionally, the CO2 fraction in exhaust gas is indirectly limited by way of the 'CAFE' (fuel economy) values. Fuels with a high hydrogen / carbon ratio have a favourable effect on exhaust emissions. An entirely hydrogen-fueled engine consequently emits only HC, CO and CO2 fractions from the complete or incomplete combustion of the lube oil.

Such "oil emissions" (see section "Oil Consumption") can be controlled principally by means of the combustion process, the engine operating points, the formulation and ageing of the oil itself, and also by considering the following aspects in the layout of the cylinder / piston / piston ring system:

Consequently, the rather conflicting aims of this layout in terms of exhaust emissions are on the one hand to optimize oil scraping and so reduce oil emissions, and on the other to reduce friction and obtain better fuel economy and lower CO2levels.


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